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In many instances the strata are dislocated by "dykes," or "faults," which take great ranges through the interior of the basin, chiefly in a direction from north to south, and often elevate or depress the whole of the strata, from forty to a hundred feet, for hundreds of acres together: these dislocations are not generally discernible by any appearance on the surface. From the Neath river westward to Carmarthen bay, the strata of the southern series are more regular than those opposite to them on the north: but eastward of that line the case is reversed.
The lower beds of the coal deposit inclose parallel strata of IRON-ORE, in some places as many as sixteen in number, accompanied with irregular balls or lumps of iron-ore, called "balls of mine. The mountains being intersected by deep valleys, offer much facility for working the coal and iron together, by means of levels. The iron-ore is in great abundance on the northern side of the county, from the neighbourhood of Merthyr-Tydvil and Aberdare westward towards the upper part of the Vale of Tawe, where it yields thirty per cent.
More recently this kind of ironstone has been discovered at Ystalyfera, in the Vale of Tawe; where, however, it is not yet wrought, the argillaceous description being still exclusively smelted in the important works there. The strata of the limestone of the Vale of Glamorgan, and of Gower, for the most part undulate with the surface of the country, and are of several varieties. The White limestone , which occupies the whole of Gower and much of the Vale adjoining the coal tract, is so denominated, not from the colour of the stone in its natural state, which is for the most part a dark grey, but because it burns to a perfectly white lime, of the very best quality as a manure.
On some of the rising grounds of this limestone tract are deposits of fine white sandstone, as on St. It has besides several beds of tufa freestone, resembling Purbeck stone, and of calcareous freestone, especially of the latter, in the parish of St. Fagan's, where it resembles Portland stone. The white limestone is extremely cavernous, and some of its cavities contain considerable quantities of lead-ore, some calamine and manganese, and strings of copper. Lead-ore has been obtained in the islets of Barry and Sully, and at Llantrythid, Coychurch, Merthyr-Mawr, Newton, Coed Lai, Maenllwyd, about three miles east of Caerphilly; All Slade mine, in the parish of Bishopston, in Gower; Tewgoed mine, in the parish of Llangan, near Cowbridge; and Park mine, about a mile to the south of Llantrissent: but at none of these places is this metal now worked.
Calamine is found in the greatest quantity at Maenllwyd; manganese in the peninsula of Gower, and at Newton, Twynau Gwynion, and other places. Lias limestone is in this county commonly called "Aberthaw limestone," from the name of a village on the coast, in the neighbourhood of which it more particularly abounds, and from which great quantities of it are shipped coastwise. From Porthkerry the grey, or rag, lias occupies the sea-coast westward to beyond Dunraven Castle, a distance of about fourteen miles, and extends inland about six miles: several detached deposits of this kind of stone are also found in conjunction with the white limestone, in different places.
The lime of the lias stone is of a buff colour, and not only makes the very best mortar for the purposes of ordinary building, but also forms a valuable cement for works under water: for agricultural purposes, however, it is of inferior quality. A kind of bastard lias, in substance between the true lias and the white limestone, is found in a tract about four miles long and one broad, between Cowbridge and St.
Marychurch; and again in the parish of Tythegston, to the west of Ogmore. To the north of the white limestone, and on the verge of the coal tract, is an imperfectly stratified bed of a calcareous pudding-stone, which takes its course from Ruddry, on the Romney, about seven miles north of Cardiff, to Caerphilly Down, and through St. This, in some places, rests upon the southern edge of the coal strata.
The limestone tracts of the southern side of the county afford excellent specimens of Marble , some of which are beautifully variegated with yellow and light liver colours, others with four colours, resembling the brocatello of the lapidaries, while others again are of a liver colour, slightly variegated. In Gower is obtained a marble, variegated with white, yellow, and liver colours, besides some of a dark colour beautifully streaked with white, which is sawed and polished in the vicinity of Swansea.
Near Merthyr-Tydvil, and at Bwa Maen, near Pont-Neath-Vaughan, is found a marble of a darker colour, in conjunction with mountain limestone. Gypseous alabaster , the "compact gypsum" of Kirwan, is discovered in large quantities, and of the best quality, at Penarth, Leckwith, Lavernock, and other places, chiefly in a hard clay, or marl, under the blue lias limestone. In the parish of Llansannor is found a thin stratum of a flinty stone, used by the country people to strike fire from steel; as are other strata of the same kind at Newcastle, near Bridgend; and at Merthyr-Mawr millstone burrs, freestone, and micaceous schist, here called pennant , occur on the line of separation between the southern coal strata and the limestone of the Vale of Glamorgan.
The beds of ironstone and clunch, lying contiguous to the coal strata, mostly exhibit vegetable impressions. The manufactures and commerce, owing to the abundance of mineral treasures in the county, and its maritime situation, far exceed in extent and importance those of any other county in the principality. Their increase has been especially remarkable within the last few years. The chief branch of manufacture is that of IRON, which is principally carried on at Merthyr-Tydvil, where forty-six furnaces for smelting the ore were in operation in The total number of furnaces connected with the iron-trade of South Wales and Monmouthshire was about , of which Glamorganshire contained about half: the total quantity of iron made was about , tons.
At first, the iron-trade of the county was almost confined to the Merthyr and other districts connected with the port of Cardiff; but afterwards, new fields were opened in the Swansea and Neath valleys, and in the valleys of which Porthcawl and Aberavon are the outlets. From Cardiff the exports of iron consist of bars, while at Porthcawl and Swansea pig-iron is the kind exclusively shipped. The county contains numerous foundries, forges, and rolling-mills, for manufacturing the rough metal into bar and rod iron, and for moulding it into all kinds of articles in cast-iron.
About persons are employed in nail-making. Next in importance to the manufacture of iron is that of copper, the Swansea valley forming the chief seat of the copper-trade in Great Britain. At these works, which comprise all that are carried on in South Wales, immense quantities of ore are smelted. There are also large copper-rolling establishments, and a silver-mill.
The Cornish ore yields about eight per cent. Of the tin-works in the county, the principal are at Treforest, near Newbridge; at Melin-Griffith, near Llandaf; at Aberavon; at Ynys-pen-llwch, about eight miles from Swansea; and at Cwmavon: the first-mentioned are said to be on the largest scale of any in the kingdom. At Swansea is an extensive manufacture of fine earthenware, much of the produce of which is shipped to various parts of England: a similar manufacture was established, soon after the commencement of the present century, at Nantgarw, in the parish of Eglwysilan, among the mountains to the north of Cardiff; but the manufacture has been discontinued there some years, and the premises converted into a pipe manufactory.
Chemical works and zinc-works are carried on in the Swansea valley, and chemical works also in the neighbourhood of Neath, and at Cwmavon. At Bridgend was formerly a woollen manufacture, chiefly of scarlet shawls, in imitation of the provincial garment called the "Gower whittle:" and although it has been abandoned many years, others of the same kind are still carried on in different parts of the county, particularly at Caerphilly, where also both narrow and broad cloths are made.
A considerable quantity of flannel, which forms the chief clothing of the peasantry, is made in many parts of Glamorganshire; and coarse cloth is manufactured in small quantities, by individuals who carry it for sale to the fairs and markets. Numerous hides and skins are dressed here for sale at Brecknock, and at the Bristol and other English markets: those of the Glamorgan Vale cattle are the thinnest hides known, and are excellently adapted for coach and cart harness.
The oyster-fishery at the Mumbles gives employment, in the height of the season, to upwards of persons; a fleet of sixty or eighty boats is engaged in it, and each boat is manned by four men. The beds extend from off the Mumbles headland, where the boats are moored, almost to the Worm's Head, at the other extremity of the Gower coast. The season commences on the 1st of September, and closes at the beginning of May.
Immense quantities of the oysters, which are of excellent quality, are sent to Bristol, Liverpool, London, and other great markets, through the factors at Swansea: sometimes a boat dredges from 18, to 20, in a single week. Lobsters, and other fish of the most valuable kinds, also abound on the coast of Gower; the lobsters are uncommonly large and fine.
In other parts of the county are fisheries of salmon and sewin, which latter fish is found only in those rivers flowing from the north or east to the south or west; the Ogmore is, or until lately was, celebrated for the abundance and fine flavour of its fish of both these species. Part of the produce of the coast, viz. The chief extraordinary imports are, copper-ore and tin; potters'-clay, flint, and chert, for the potteries at Swansea; iron-ore from Lancashire, to be blended with that of the county; and bricks.
The banks of these, and of the numerous smaller streams of the mountains, are in most places distinguished for the grandeur or rich beauty of their scenery. This river is navigable for vessels of small burthen to Cardiff, which is as far as the tide flows. Its stream, in dry weather, is very scanty; but, in case of sudden rains and thaws, the waters of this, as of the other mountain rivers, roll over their rocky bed in an impetuous torrent.
The Tawy enters from Brecknockshire, a little below Ystrad-Gunlais, and taking first a southwestern and then a southern course, is joined from the west by the small but romantic streams of the Upper and the Lower Clydach, and empties itself into the bay of Swansea, at the town of that name, after a course of about twenty-five miles. This river is navigable for ships of considerable burthen to a distance of two miles from its mouth, and for small sloops one mile further to Morriston, where the flow of the tide is checked by a weir. The Neath also descends from the mountains of Brecknockshire, and flows south-westward along one of the most picturesque and interesting valleys of South Wales.
The principal of its tributary streams, some of which form beautiful cascades, is the Dulas, which joins it about three miles above the town of Neath; and from this junction, flowing nearly southward by that town, the Neath pursues its course to Swansea bay, into which it falls about four miles eastward of Swansea, after a course of nearly twenty-two miles.
This river is navigable for vessels of tons' burthen, at spring tides, as high as Neath; but the chief resort of shipping is Briton-Ferry, lower down.
The Loughor , which has its source in the parish of Llandilo-Vawr, in Carmarthenshire, bounds the county of Glamorgan for a considerable distance on the west, and falls into the creek of Loughor, near the ancient borough of that name. This inlet, or estuary, being joined by a petty stream from Gower, called the Burry, is designated Burry River; and, sweeping round to the west, joins the bay of Carmarthen opposite the projecting north-western extremity of Gower: it is navigable for small vessels up to the town of Loughor.
The little stream of the Burry is noted for its trout. The Romney rises near the north-eastern extremity of the county, and, giving motion to the machinery of different coal and iron works, forms throughout its course the boundary between Glamorganshire and the English county of Monmouth. It flows in an irregular southern direction, and falls into the Bristol Channel through a small estuary, a little north-eastward of Penarth harbour. Almost the only stream in Gower, besides the Burry, is the Pennarth Pill, which falls into Oxwich bay. The conveyance of the mineral productions of Glamorganshire to its different sea-ports is greatly facilitated by the canals by which portions of it are traversed.
It extends from Merthyr-Tydvil to the sea near Cardiff, a distance of twenty-six miles, through a mountainous and romantic country; and has a fall of no less than feet, by fifty locks, eighteen of which occur about the middle of its course, within the space of a mile. On reaching Cardiff, it passes under the turnpikeroad to Newport by a tunnel of considerable length, emerging from which, at the distance of half a mile from its egress, it falls into a basin that communicates with the sea at Penarth Roads, by means of a tide-lock. This basin admits vessels of tons' burthen, which ascend as high as Cardiff; but above the town the canal is navigable only for barges of twenty-five tons' burthen.
The Neath canal extends from the navigable channel of the river Neath at Briton-Ferry, north-eastward, up the valley of that river, to Aber-Gwrelych, near Pont-Neath-Vaughan, on the confines of Brecknockshire, a distance of about thirteen miles, in which it has sixteen locks. It was originally constructed under an act of parliament obtained in , and extended under another act passed in Connected with it are various tramways, the principal of which is one uniting it to the Aberdare branch canal.
The total length of this canal is about seventeen miles, in which it has a fall of feet, by means of thirtysix locks. It was completed and opened in , and is navigable for barges of twenty-five tons' burthen. The produce of the neighbouring mines is conveyed to its banks by means of numerous tramroads, two of which are each about two miles in length; one of these branches from near YnysTawe to coal-mines, and the other to coal-mines and lime-works near Bryn Morgan.
A portion, about a mile and a half in length, of that part of the canal nearest to Swansea, is of older construction than the rest, having been cut by the Duke of Beaufort, who still receives the tolls of it. The small cut called the Penclawdd canal , in the northern part of Gower, constructed about the year , was formerly the means of conveying excellent bituminous coal to vessels lying in the Burry River, but is now disused.
The following canals are private property. The "First Neath," the "Briton," or the "Cremlyn" canal, now called the Neath and Swansea Junction canal , was constructed about the year , and forms an inland medium of communication between Briton-Ferry and Swansea, branching from the Neath canal at Aberdulas, crossing the river Neath by a handsome aqueduct of eleven arches, and extending a distance of nine miles without a single lock, except that by which it communicates with the eastern side of Swansea harbour, at a place called Port-Tennant, from the name of the spirited individual by whom the whole was constructed.
The First Swansea canal , or Llansamlet canal , extends from the village of Foxhole, above Swansea, on the eastern side of the River Tawe, to the collieries of Gwernllwynwydd, near Llansamlet.
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The Bute ship-canal , at Cardiff, completed in , at the sole expense of the late Marquess of Bute, forms one of the greatest commercial works in the principality. The portion called the float consists of a safe basin, entered by sea-gates, and occupying an area of about an acre and a half, capable of accommodating vessels to the amount of tons.
North of this outer basin is the main entrance lock, feet long, 36 feet wide, and calculated to admit ships of tons. The inner basin is entered from this, and extends towards the town above yards, having a width of feet and a depth of 19 feet, with accommodation for between and vessels of all classes: its quay walls are most massive, admirably fended and coped with gigantic blocks of tooled granite.
The railways in the county are of great importance. Soon after leaving Cardiff, the line takes a north-western direction, passing the city of Llandaf on the left; the tin and iron works at Melin-Griffith and Pentyrch are next passed, then the Taf's-Well station, and, some miles further on, the Newbridge station. The works of the line also embrace two short tunnels. The Aberdare railway , opened in the month of August , commences in junction with the line just described, at Navigation, and after a course of nine miles and a half, terminates at Aberdare, to the west of Merthyr.
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Another important line is the Llynvi-Valley railway , formerly called the Dyfryn-Llynvi and Porthcawl railway, which commences at Blaen-Llynvi, at the head of the valley, and terminates at the harbour of Porthcawl, in the parish of Newton-Nottage, having a branch of several miles from near Cevn-Cribwr to the flourishing town of Bridgend.
Its length, exclusively of the Bridgend branch, is seventeen miles. This line was originally laid down as a tramroad, but an act was lately passed for its conversion into a locomotive railway: considerable extensions, also, are projected. The chief line, however, in the county, is the South Wales railway , which will run through its entire length. It appears that a railway through this part of the principality had been several times proposed, before the date of the present line. In , a prospectus was issued for the construction of a railway from Swansea through Gloucester to the metropolis, for the purpose of conveying coal and other minerals to the London market, as well as passengers at coach speed: the plan, however, was considered to be visionary.
Twelve years afterwards, a company was formed at Gloucester for the construction of a South Wales line through Swansea; and this scheme was followed by another, which excited some attention, entitled the England and Ireland Union railway, being a more northern line, with a terminus at Fishguard, in Pembrokeshire. Brunel was appointed to make surveys for the Gloucester company, but the panic of blighted the project, and it was not till the year that the formation of a railway through South Wales seemed likely to prove a reality.
The scheme now proposed received the warm support of the Great Western railway company, and being placed in the hands of Mr. Brunel, soon assumed a high rank in public estimation. The petition for the necessary bill was introduced into the house of commons on February 26th, and the bill received the royal assent on August 4th, Under this act and two subsequent acts passed in and , the length of the line and its branches was to be as follows: from Hagloe, in Gloucestershire, where it joins the Gloucester and Dean-Forest line, to Fishguard, on the coast of Pembrokeshire, miles, 3 furlongs; the Pembroke branch, 19 m.
In the autumn of , Capt. Claxton, R. The distance to Abermawr, however, does not differ materially from that to Fishguard, the line in this part of its course running northward.
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The course of the railway may be described, generally, as from east to west, along the northern shore of the Severn estuary, and the southern coast of Wales. Commencing in Gloucestershire, it passes by the river-side and through some heavy cuttings towards Chepstow, in Monmouthshire, where it will be carried across the river Wye a little below the present bridge.
The line then follows the western side of the Wye until the high ground at its back recedes; and thence the gradients are easy over Caldicot Level to Newport, in which neighbourhood, for a distance of about three miles, the works are remarkably difficult and expensive. An embankment a mile in length and twenty feet high leads to the Usk here, across which a wooden bridge, feet in length, was nearly completed in May , when it was destroyed by fire. The railway is carried across the Monmouthshire canal by a wooden bridge, near which a tunnel of three-quarters of a mile commences; the line then runs over Wentloog Level, and crossing the Romney by another wooden bridge, feet in length, enters the county of Glamorgan.
It passes a little south of Cardiff, between the Bute docks and the old town, and, about two miles to the west, crosses the mail-road, near the village of Ely; then runs through St. Fagan's parish, and bending towards the north-west, passes not far from Llantrissent, along the borders of the hill-country.
The river Ely is crossed seven times on stone-bridges, and much fine scenery is opened up in this portion of the line.
After sweeping a little to the southwest, it passes close to Bridgend on the north-east, afterwards crosses the Llynvi-Valley railway, and runs within half a mile of Pyle. The route originally projected for this part was by Ogmore and NewtonNottage, close to the coast, but it being apprehended that the sea-sand would be unfavourable, the present deviation was sanctioned. Leaving Pyle, the line follows the edge of marshes for several miles, and passing Aberavon, arrives at Neath, where the Neath river is crossed.
Beyond this town the gradients are steep; and some heavy works, comprising a tunnel, cuttings, and vast embankments, carry the line into the Swansea valley, which it will cross at Landore, by a stupendous viaduct, including a bridge over the Tawe. In this valley and at Loughor, a few miles further on, will be some rather heavy tunnels; and at the latter place, Burry River is to be crossed by a long bridge, a little below the present Loughor bridge. Here the line enters Carmarthenshire, where it will prove of incalculable benefit to the towns of Llanelly and Carmarthen.
In Pembrokeshire, which it next enters, will be branches to the towns of Pembroke and Haverfordwest, the chief places in that county. Most of the foregoing particulars of the line are derived, in an abridged form, from Mr. Cliffe's "Book of South Wales. The Vale of Neath railway will commence at Neath, in junction with the South Wales line, and pass up the river-valley in a north-eastern direction, near Cadoxton, Lantwit, Aberpergwm, and PontNeath-Vaughan.
It will then leave the river, and proceed in an eastern course, north of Aberdare, to its terminus at Merthyr-Tydvil. Two acts have been obtained for the line; one in , authorizing the construction of a main line of twenty-two miles fifty-nine chains, with branches of five miles forty chains; and the other in , authorizing four miles of branches.
Cameron's Coalbrook Steam-Coal and Swansea and Loughor railway , for which an act was procured in , will commence at the Coalbrook collieries, near the town of Loughor, and proceeding eastward, terminate at Swansea. The Swansea-Valley railway , authorized in , will extend from Swansea, up the valley of the river Tawe, and nearly parallel with the Swansea canal, into Brecknockshire, where it will terminate, at Abercrave, in the parish of Ystrad-Gunlais.
Its length will be seventeen miles; exclusively of three branches, in all less than a mile and a half. The Swansea and Amman Junction , also authorized in , will extend from the preceding line at Ynis-y-Mond, in the parish of Cadoxton, to Nantmelyn, in the parish of Llangyvelach, its length being nearly four miles and a half, exclusively of about two miles of branches.
Glamorganshire is also intersected by a great number of good common roads, which afford easy and convenient communication between the different towns and villages, but are of little comparative importance in a commercial point of view. The agriculturists of the lower part of the Vale are subject to considerable inconvenience from the want of good inland communication, in conveying to market the produce of this fertile tract; in consequence of which, the best markets of the county are supplied in a greater degree than might be expected with Irish and other foreign grain.
Farmers living near an Irish out-port can send their corn to the manufacturing district of which Merthyr is the centre, almost as easily as can those about Aberthaw, St. Athan's, Bonvilston, St. Although great improvements have been made in the roads, at very considerable expense, yet not one of the improved lines, with the exception of the New Mill road, are calculated to benefit the agriculturist; they all extend from east to west, and afford no direct communication between the barren manufacturing district of the northern and the fertile agricultural tracts of the southern side of the county.
The bridges are more numerous in this than in most other counties, chiefly on account of its greater commercial importance, and the abundance of materials for their construction. The remains of antiquity are very numerous, and of great diversity of character.
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About two miles eastward from it, on Mynydd-y-Gwyryd, is another monument of the same class, consisting of three concentric circles of flat stones, the outermost of which is about twenty yards in diameter: in the centre of this also is a cist-vaen, vulgarly called "the altar. Near Dyfryn House, about a mile south of the village of St. Nicholas', between Cardiff and Cowbridge, is an extraordinary cromlech, said to be the largest in the kingdom, forming a rectangular apartment, about seventeen feet in length and thirteen in width.
Three sides of it consist of large flat stones placed upright in the ground, while the roof is formed by one large stone, twenty-four feet long, varying in breadth from ten to seventeen feet, and computed to contain as many as square feet. Near St. Donatt's is one, called by the people of the neighbourhood "the Old Church;" and on Cevn-y-Bryn, a mountain in Gower, one called "Arthur's Stone," the supporting stones of which are of small dimensions, while the inclining stone, though not equal in superficial area to that of the cromlech near Dyfryn, is very much thicker.
This far-famed monument of the Druids, which tradition has referred to King Arthur, is about eleven feet and a half high; and notwithstanding that large portions have at different times been broken off, the covering stone is still of above twenty tons' weight. On a hill above New House, to the north of Bridgend, is one of the largest and most ancient British encampments in South Wales. The chief Roman road which crossed this county, namely, the Via Julia , or Julia Strata , is supposed to have entered it on the east, near the present bridge over the Romney, to the east of Cardiff, and to have passed through the vicinity of that town, and nearly in the line of the present western road, to Ewenny.
It thence ascended almost in a direct course to the Newton Downs, where some vestiges of it are still to be seen; and proceeded, by Kenvig and Neath, across the western boundary of the county, near the station Leucarum , at Loughor. Another, called in the present day the Sarn Helen, branched from the Via Julia at Neath, and, taking a northeastern direction, may be traced from the border of the marshes above the town until it enters Brecknockshire, in its course to the great station in that county before mentioned: large portions of this way remain entire.
Besides these, an ancient road of unknown date, but in a state of excellent preservation, commences at a large and strong encampment on the most elevated summit of the mountain of Mynydd-yGwair, called Pen Cae'r Clawdd, about twelve miles to the north of Swansea. It passes first southward, and afterwards inclines a little westward until it joins the road from Swansea to Llandilo-Vawr in Carmarthenshire, which proceeds along it in a straight line for about two miles, beyond which, in the county of Carmarthen, it may again be traced singly.
The principal Roman encampments are, a very strong one at the village of Caerau, about three miles west of Cardiff, which occupies the entire summit of a gentle eminence, and comprises about twelve acres; a smaller one, about three miles westward of this, near the village of St. Nicholas', called Cae'r Gaer; another small one, about two miles from Cowbridge, close to the common called the Golden Mile, near which is a tumulus, and besides which are vestiges of an encampment on the other side of the Golden Mile; another on the sea-coast, at a place called the Castle Ditches, about two miles east from Bonvilston; at the same distance from this again, another in a similar situation; and two small encampments, situated on a common about two miles eastward from Loughor.
There are several tumuli, or barrows, in different parts of the county, of which those situated near the line of the Julia Strata , near Bonvilston, are more particularly worthy of mention. Roman coins have been found in different places, more especially at Pengwern, in the parish of Ilston, in Gower; in the parish of Llansamlet, near Swansea; at Cowbridge; in the vicinity of Bonvilston; near St. Athan's; a few miles eastward from that village; and in the vicinity of Loughor; and various other minor relics of the same people have been discovered in the county.
On the surface of the mineral district are frequently found heaps of scoria , termed by the English "Roman cinders. A Benedictine priory, a house of Grey friars, and another monastery, at Cardiff; a monastery at Llancarvan, one at Lantwit-Major, and one at Llangennith, were destroyed long before the Reformation. At that period there were, at Margam a Cistercian abbey; at Neath, a Cistercian abbey; and at Ewenny, a Benedictine cell. Remains yet exist of the monasteries of Ewenny, Margam, and Neath, and of other monastic buildings at Lantwit-Major and near Llantrissent.
Some of the more remarkable specimens of ecclesiastical architecture in the county are to be seen in the ruined cathedral of Llandaf, now undergoing restoration; and in the churches of Ewenny; Llanblethian, near Cowbridge; LantwitMajor, which, with its churchyard, contains numerous ancient monuments and tombstones; and Margam. John's church, Cardiff, is worthy of notice for its elegant tower and some other interesting features. In Swansea church is a very fine monumental brass. The church of Aberdare is remarkable for the rustic simplicity of its architecture, and may be regarded as a characteristic specimen of the edifices of this class in the mountainous parts of the county.
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